The psychological readiness of children to study at school (part 1)
The psychological readiness of the child for schooling is one of the most important results of mental development during the period of preschool childhood.
The components of children’s readiness to study at school are personal, strong-willed and intellectual readiness.
Personal readiness of the child for school. Readiness of this type is expressed in relation to the child’s school, to educational activities, to teachers, to himself.
The creation of an emotional experience, the consistent deepening of the emotional attitude to learning in the process of a child’s activity is a necessary condition for the formation of his positive attitude to school. Therefore, it is important that the material given to children about the school is not only understood, but also felt, tell them, an indispensable condition for which is the inclusion of children in activities that activate both consciousness and feelings. The specific methods and means used to do this are varied:
• joint (family) reading of fiction,
• organization of a book corner in the family for the child,
• contacting the family library with children in search of a solution to the problem,
• watching filmstrips, films about the school, TV shows about school life with subsequent discussion,
• attracting younger children to school holidays of elder sons and re daughters,
• Parents’ stories about their beloved teachers, showing photographs, letters related to the school years of parents,
• acquaintance with proverbs, sayings in which the mind is famous, emphasizes the importance of books, teachings,
• creation of conditions for playing school and direct participation in it, for example, as a teacher, etc.
Parents should also promote the formation of such personal qualities in children that would help them get in touch with classmates at school, with the teacher. Indeed, even those children who attended kindergarten and used to live without their parents for some time, be surrounded by peers (which, by the way, is also very important), find themselves in school among strangers.
The child’s ability to enter a children’s society, act together with others, give in, repair if necessary, a sense of camaraderie – qualities that provide him with painless adaptation to new social conditions, contribute to the creation of favorable conditions for his further development.
Of course, the child’s communication with teachers and peers in kindergarten, the position of teachers in the formation of relationships play an important role. But no less important is the fact that parents pay attention to this problem, what is the family microenvironment, what place does the child occupy among brothers and sisters, parents isolate or welcome the contacts of their child with their peers in the yard, and how they evaluate their behavior and relationships.
Volitional readiness of the child for school. The formation and volitional readiness of the future first-grader requires serious attention. Vedogo expects hard work, he will need the ability to do not only what he wants, but what the teacher, the school mode, and the program will require from him.
Towards the end of preschool age, the basic structural elements of volitional action are formed – the child is able to set a goal, make a decision, outline an action plan, execute, implement it, exert a certain effort in the process of overcoming an obstacle, evaluate the result of his volitional action. True, the distinguished goals are not always sufficiently stable and conscious; retention of the goal is largely determined by the difficulty of the task, the duration of its implementation. All researchers of the development of the will in children note that in preschool age the goal is more successfully achieved in the game situation.
By 6 years, the degree of arbitrariness of the child’s movements changes significantly. So, if at 3 years the child is aware of the result and the way of acting with the subject, but is not yet able to realize the individual re-stages of movement, then at 6-7 years of age the movements become an object of conscious volitional activity. “The increasing ability to analyze one’s own movements and attention to the accuracy of the movement pattern speaks of the child’s psychological readiness for learning at school, the ability to consciously acquire motor skills of an already labor order, complex forms of skills such as writing, drawing, playing instruments, dancing,” – wrote the psychologist Ya.Z. Neverovich.
Arbitrariness in the behavior of a 6-year-old child is manifested not only in this. She is in the deliberate memorization of the poem, in the ability to overcome an immediate desire, to abandon an attractive occupation, play for the sake of fulfilling an adult’s assignment, a public assignment (duty on the dining room, etc.), helping mother. She also has the ability to overcome fear (enter a dark room, into the dentist’s office), overcome pain, and not cry with a bruise.