The psychological readiness of children to study at school (part 3)
There are probably children in each class whose intellectual passivity leads them to the number of lagging, poorly performing students. The reasons for this kind of passivity often lie in the limited intellectual impressions and interests of the child. Unable to cope with the simplest educational task, he quickly performs it if it translates into a practical plane or into a game.
An integral part of a child’s psychological readiness for schooling is intellectual readiness. This concept includes both the stock of knowledge and perceptions of the child about the environment, and the formation of his mental skills. However, the main thing is, perhaps, how the child is oriented in the environment and how he comprehends the information he received.
By the age of 6-7, a preschooler should know his address, the name of the city or village where he lives, the name of our country, its capital. With proper upbringing, children know not only the names, but also the middle names of their parents, who they work with, and understand that their grandmother is someone’s mother: father or mother. They are guided in the seasons, their sequence and the main signs. They know the months, days of the week, the current year. They know the main types of trees, flowers, differentiate domestic and wild animals, that is, they are oriented in time, space and the immediate social environment. By observing nature, the events of their life, children learn to find spatio-temporal and causal relationships, to generalize, to draw conclusions. For preschoolers, this largely happens spontaneously, from experience.
Knowing the world around him, the child learns to think: analyze phenomena, generalize them and compare, draw conclusions. It is necessary to carefully follow the path of accumulating information from a certain field of knowledge, not forgetting the laws of child development.
It may seem to some parents that when working with children on the threshold of school life, you should pay as much time and attention as possible to school-type activities and not spend expensive time on “frivolous” things. What can be said about this? Yes, the possibilities of preschool children in mastering certain knowledge and skills are relatively small. But one cannot fail to take into account the mental and physical forces this requires of them, the uniqueness of the motives of their behavior and other features of this increase should, of course, diminish the role of educational activity, but it will play the primary, leading role when the child becomes a real schoolboy . The effectiveness of pedagogical influences in working with first-graders will be the higher, as we, adults, will take more into account the age-related features of this transition period. Younger school age has its own internal laws of mental development, and their violation can lead to irreparable errors in the future. Therefore, along with the game, a place of honor in the preparation of the child for school is occupied by drawing, modeling, application, design. In these classes, children’s ideas about the world, about how objects, animals, and people are “arranged”, are developed.
Obviously, a person’s hands begin from the shoulders, that there is a neck between the body and head. And look at the drawing of a man made by a child 4-5 re years old! Hands grow from the middle of the body, the head is attached super-directly to it. It will take a lot of time before comparing your drawings with the figures of real people will lead the child to an understanding of how, in reality, parts of the human body relate to each other.
The same way – from a crude and distorted scheme to the correct reproduction of reality – goes through the image of an animal, tree, house, car. As a result, the child’s own ideas about the depicted objects also develop. The ability to mentally imagine different objects, “turn” them in the mind, develops. Later, all this will be very important for the assimilation of geometry, physics and many other school subjects.
Drawing, building, creating plasticine monsters, the child experiences the joy of creativity, reflects his impressions, expresses his emotional state. Unfortunately, only a few parents think that drawing and designing is the first productive activity of the child. We, adults, in the process of our activities almost always create a real product, we get a result that can be objectively assessed, compared with a sample. In children, for the time being, there is no such activity; and so, she appears.
It is important to remember: with the skillful guidance of the parents, these types of activities are the best preparation of the child for school, it is here that the will, perseverance, purposefulness of the child’s activities are brought up.