Comparative analysis of the structural components of personality (part 2)
We can apply this approach to study the personality of a teenager, taking into account age-related characteristics and the age norm.
Thus, scientific psychodiagnostics is impossible outside the system-structural analysis of the psychological properties of a person. Only highly qualified professional psychologists can receive scientifically reliable results of psychodiagnostic studies. Their activities are subject to strict ethical requirements and standards. Persons involved in psychodiagnostics should have the right to do so – have licenses. The techniques they use must meet the necessary professional standards. All psychologists are well aware of the techniques of MMPI, Kettell, Lichko (patho-characteristic oprostnik), A.N. Eagle (SOP technique – a tendency to deviant behavior), test by G. Eisenck and others. There are also a large number of tests and techniques that reveal the professional orientation of the personality: for example, Klimov’s technique (Differential Diagnostic Questionnaire – DDO), Holland’s technique, etc. [ one].
As a rule, they are based on the test method or questionnaire and require mandatory answers to the questions posed.
It should be noted that today, along with traditional methods, psychological science uses various variable methods of human diagnostics, which provide complete information about the structural components of the personality. One of these diagnostic methods is the Crystal software package (A.N. Strelnikov et al.), Which was used in this study. [five]
Express diagnostics is developed on the basis of the methodology of electro-puncture research and is intended to determine the physical and mental state of a person, including the study of other personality parameters, namely:
-identify personality psychotype (extraversion-introversion – according to Jung);
-determine the coefficient of intellectual and creative activity: IQ,
creativity ratio; coefficient of development of abilities;
-assess the functional state of all the basic systems of the body and identify possible causes of a psycho-emotional nature with pathological deviations;
-determine the biological age of the body and its individual systems, as well as the rate of age-related changes;
-reasons of neuropsychic tension and the possibility of their correction;
– tendency to stress, aggression, affects, depression, etc.
Another aspect of this type of diagnosis is not only a statement of the fact of a functional disorder, but also an explanation of the reasons that formed this deviation. This diagnosis is interesting from the perspective of psychosomatic medicine.
In addition, in the framework of professional diagnostics, this technique allows you to identify:
-the degree of disclosure of thinking, emotions, will.
-potential strengths of the personality, abilities, inclinations, interests of the individual;
-Recommended activities and professions, as well as favorable factors for professional growth.
Thus, using this diagnosis, we can investigate such structural components of the personality as:
-cognitive sphere (cognitive abilities, intellectual and creative activity, thinking);
-emotional-volitional sphere (the presence of depressive and affective states, the presence of anxiety, stress resistance, the presence of the volitional component, etc.);
-behavioral sphere (the presence of aggressive tendencies), as well as
– motivational-need component and professional orientation of the personality.
A comparative analysis of the structural components of the personality was attended by an equal number of Russian teenagers in Moscow and Russian-speaking German high school students in Berlin. The age of the sample ranged from 14 to 16 years. All participants took part in the diagnostic study voluntarily, with the consent of both or one of the parents. The total number of German and Russian high school students was 22 people, of which 8 were girls and 14 were boys.
Due to the small sample in this study, in the future it can be continued with a large number of adolescents, taking into account also the gender of the subjects. The last criterion raises a number of controversial points, because Western ideology eliminates gender differences, in which both girls and boys have the right to independently identify themselves with any gender. In our mentality and the recognized system of education, there is no place for the transformation of the gender of children. In this regard, this study is more focused not on gender differences, but on the difference in structural components, including the cognitive, emotional and behavioral spheres of the personality of adolescents, as well as professional orientation high school students.
Taking into account various social, cultural, political and religious criteria, norms established in society, as well as material and economic living conditions of adolescents, one can identify the tendency and prospects for the formation of the personality as a whole. Undoubtedly, these determinants affect the structural components of the personality of high school students.