The psychological readiness of children to study at school (part 2)
More complicated is the situation with cognitive activity. It takes time before the requirements for the child on the part of the adult, his program (to give knowledge for the future, for the future) will turn into a child’s own program. The rudiments of this ability are already being formed at an older preschool age. But these are only the beginnings; at 6-7 years, they still do not reach full development. Adults should not forget about this feature of 6-year-olds, observe the gradualness in demanding, take into account the opportunities, interests, needs of children of this age.
It should be borne in mind that a distinctive feature of volitional regulation of preschoolers’ behavior is the unity of the motivational and operational sides, that is, the child’s characteristic attitude to difficulties and his typical ways of overcoming them. Therefore, as special psychological studies show, the education of motives for achieving the goal is of paramount importance in the formation of will. The formation in children of not fearing difficulties (accepting them), the desire not to give in to them, but to resolve them, not to abandon the intended goal when faced with obstacles will help the child independently or only with little help to overcome difficulties that will arise in him in the first grade.
Intellectual readiness for school. It is important that the child is mentally developed. In the past, the mental level of development was judged by the number of skills, knowledge, and the volume of “mental inventory” that is revealed in the vocabulary. This is not entirely true. It should be noted that living conditions have changed. Children literally bathe in the flow of information like a sponge, absorb new words and new expressions. Their dictionary increases dramatically, but this does not mean that thinking is developing at the same pace.
Of course, a certain horizons, a stock of specific knowledge about living and nonliving nature, people and their work, social life are necessary for a 6-year-old child as a foundation, the foundation of what he will learn in school in the future. “An empty head does not argue,” the psychologist P.P. Blonsky – the more experience and knowledge the head has, the more capable it is to reason. ”
Existing programs, their assimilation will require the child to be able to compare, analyze, generalize, draw independent conclusions, and require sufficiently developed cognitive processes.
Studies have found, for example, that by the senior preschool age, children master some rational ways of examining the external properties of objects, using the learned system of socially developed standards. Their use enables the child to perceive and analyze complex objects differentially.
It turned out that preschoolers can understand the general patterns that underlie scientific knowledge. So, for example, at the age of 6-7 years, a child is able to learn not only individual facts about nature, but also knowledge about the interaction of an organism with the environment, the relationship between the form of an object and its function, aspiration and behavior. However, preschoolers achieve a sufficiently high level of cognitive activity only if education during this period is aimed at the active development of thought processes, is developmental, oriented, as L.S. wrote. Vygotsky, to the “zone of proximal development.”
A six year old can do a lot. But one should not overestimate his mental abilities. The logical form of thinking, although accessible, is not yet typical, not characteristic of it. The type of his thinking is specific. Higher forms of imaginative thinking are the result of the intellectual development of a preschooler.
Relying on the highest schematized forms of figurative thinking, the child gets the opportunity to isolate the most significant properties, relations between objects of surrounding reality. With the help of visual-schematic thinking, preschoolers not only easily understand schematic images, but also reuse them successfully. However, even acquiring generalized features, the child’s thinking remains figurative, based on real actions by objects and their “deputies”.
In preschool years, the child should be prepared for leading activities in primary school age – educational. In this case, the formation of the child’s skills required in this activity will be important. Having such skills provides a high level of learning, a characteristic feature of which is the ability to single out a learning task and turn it into an independent goal of activity. This is not easy for children, not everyone does not immediately succeed. Such an operation requires the child entering the school not only a certain level of intellectual development, but also a cognitive attitude to reality, the ability to be surprised and look for the reasons for the noticed change, novelty.
Cognitive need is pronounced in most children at 6-7 years of age. For many, it is associated with a disinterested interest in everything around; for many, but not all.