Game therapy and fairy tale therapy in the work of a child psychologist (part 2)
Another option for playing psychotherapy is to play a plot. The plot in question should resemble the real story that the child is experiencing. For example, if a girl feels an outcast in the family, the plot of the fairy tale “Cinderella” will be close, for the naughty and capricious boy you can take the plots of fairy tales “Feast of disobedience” or “Tale of Naughty”. As a rule, such performances are carried out as part of group psychotherapy. The members of the group are offered roles from the fairy tales under consideration, and how they should behave in accordance with the role is discussed. The one to whom this action is directed acts as a director, he can make changes to the game of “actors”. Thus, a child in difficulty has a unique opportunity, firstly, to see himself and his situation as if from the outside, and secondly, to make those changes that he would like from the plot and into the action. Being actively involved in such a creative process, the child himself understands how to behave in various situations, sees his mistakes and can correct them during the game.
We all read fairy tales to children, suggesting that this is a good way to develop the speech, memory, and thinking of the child. What could be the therapeutic meaning of fairy tales? Why do children like to be re-read the same fairy tale many times? Perhaps they have something that works on an unconscious level. Adults also love fairy tales, otherwise how to explain interest in films and stories that end well, and we also want to believe that miracles are possible in real life – ordinary miracles – love, loyalty, friendship, devotion. How can such a “fairy tale come true” that fairy tale therapy can do?
The use of stories, parables, legends, myths, tales taken from time immemorial. Stories are passed down from generation to generation in which people find answers to many of their questions. C. Jung called this centuries-old experience of generations the collective unconscious. In our personal unconscious, the so-called “prototypes” unite — archetypes with individual images. C. Jung wrote: “The image is mental. Every psychological process is an image and the creation of images … Therefore, these images are as real as you are. ” The image is characterized by spontaneity and primacy, the soul itself is directly manifested in it. When considering fiction, we observe the manifestation of our psychic energy and take part in them. In our thoughts, feelings there are always gods, demons, heroes. Behind the fabulous images are the symbols of the collective unconscious, and the language of these symbols is the natural language of our individual unconscious. Symbols that came from the depths of centuries are closer and clearer to the child.
The use of stories for psychotherapeutic purposes was suggested by M. Erickson, an American psychotherapist, the founder of a new, so-called “velvet” or Erickson hypnosis. Milton Erickson weaved his metaphors into the fabric of conversation. By immersing a person in a trance state, M. Erickson sought to enhance the influence of visual images, verbal associations, tactile, taste and olfactory sensations on a person’s state change. It is considered proven that the activity of the right hemisphere during a trance increases, while the activity of the left decreases. The level of criticality and rationality is reduced, but on the other hand, intuitive vision, abstract thinking develops. It turns out that we all periodically find ourselves in such a trance state throughout the day. We experience it when we listen to our favorite music, watch a movie in which we immerse ourselves completely. All external stimuli recede, and we are, as it were, in the action of this film. The same thing happens when we read a book, the images that arise when reading contribute to our immersion in the plot, as if we are transported there, as they say, we leave with our heads. This process develops our imagination, feelings. Listening to stories that are close to us, we are also immersed in a state of light trance. According to M. Erickson, everyone has the ability to positive changes, only some have this ability blocked. Metaphorical stories help trigger the mechanism of change. Stories can be applied in various options.
As an illustrative material. Our memory is such that the meaning of the story we tell falls into our memory rather than a simple statement of the same thought.
As a hint for a solution. In the story being told, a person can see a situation similar to his own. If the hero of the story copes and finds a way out of this situation, then he will be able to.
Stories help to take a fresh look at yourself and your problems; they contribute to self-awareness.
Stories give rise to ideas and increase motivation. Being a master of hypnosis, M. Erickson could masterfully “embed” history into a dialogue with the help of indirect suggestions that this prompted new achievements in patients and students. Such an “implantation” of thought is very important in the technique of hypnosis.