Tale to the rescue (part 1)
As a rule, all parents understand that raising a child is a big and difficult job. And alone, and even alone, it is impossible to cope with it. Need helpers. One of such assistants for mothers and fathers has long been a fairy tale. The experience is shared by Natalia Feliksovna Katsevich, chairman of the psychological service of the kindergarten of the “School of Cooperation.” Hints and lessons “A fairy tale is a lie, but there is a hint in it, a lesson for good fellows,” says folk wisdom. And traditionally, all parents have resorted to the help of these hints and lessons since then, probably, as the first fairy tale was told. Indeed, who among us did not hear in childhood, for example, the story about turnip, did not worry about the gullible seven kids, did not sympathize with the hare, who was driven out of the house by the insidious fox … It so happened that it is in fairy tales that children of all times and peoples draw their first answers to questions of life, from fairy tales they receive the first emotional help, in fairy tales they find examples of life scenarios. All this happens on an unconscious level, “playfully.” With their favorite heroes, children are ready for the hundredth time to overcome difficulties and defeat enemies, achieve their goals. From fairy tales, children sometimes get “first aid” in situations where adults are powerless. After all, the language of a fairy tale is close and understandable to a child, and its external simplicity and schematicity hides philosophical depth. A fairy tale is perhaps the very first psychotherapist in the world. Psychologists advise children up to 3–3.5 years old to read simple plot tales, “single-line”. Examples of such classic stories are “Turnip”, “Teremok”, “Gingerbread Man”. After three years, children are happy to perceive fairy tales about animals. And already from the age of five and older, other “authorities” appear – princes and fairies, warriors and superheroes – characters of fairy tales. At the age of 8-10, children really like everyday fairy tales. The vast possibilities of the fairy tale as an instrument of upbringing, education and development of the child, as well as a therapeutic tool in solving internal problems, psychologists noted. Thus was born the direction of practical psychology – fairy tale therapy. Psychologists work with folk, artistic tales and with specially invented – didactic, as well as psychotherapeutic and psychocorrectional. But they usually go to a psychologist with some kind of pronounced problem, and at home, a fairy tale can serve as an excellent means of prevention, which is available to ordinary mothers and fathers. Joint reading and discussion of fairy tales brings adults and children together, allowing them to speak the same language – a language rich in metaphors and allegories. Indeed, in no fairy tale you will not find direct instructions “how to behave.” Analysis and assimilation of the information obtained occurs at a subconscious level, and the child also draws conclusions within himself. He does not have to defend himself involuntarily from the instructions of older and imposed rules of behavior, he reveals himself to an exciting story and often finds answers to questions that torment him, which he himself could not consciously formulate. It is very important that in fairy-tale reality there are always characters with whom it is easy for a child to identify with himself, and this, in turn, enhances the therapeutic effect of the fairy tale. And also the fact that children trust fairy tales and fairy-tale characters, and, therefore, they are always open to the perception of “hints and lessons.” Often, an attentive parent is able to determine his own “pain points” by his favorite fairy tales. Nevertheless, fairy-tale therapy as a treatment using fairy tales is a job for a professional psychologist. Fairytale therapists combine the rich possibilities of a fairy tale and the vast baggage of their psychological knowledge. Tale by the recipe How do they “work” with the tale? Of course, psychologists read fairy tales with a child. But just reading together is not enough. The fairy tale therapist first of all diagnoses the condition of the child, finds out what is the source of the problem, what really bothers the child. Sometimes a baby is offered to name his favorite fairy tale or to compose an alternative continuation of an already famous fairy tale. Ideally, when the child himself composes a fairy tale on a given topic. The child’s train of thought and imagination, like a litmus test, is all that worries him and what he fears. And then the psychologist can choose for the “treatment” the already known fairy tale or from the already existing psychocorrectional and psychotherapeutic tales of the famous authors of fairy tales therapists, or he can create a new one for the problem that the child has encountered. “The main task is to come up with a hero who looks like a child,” says Natalya Feliksovna Katsevich, the leading educational psychologist at the School of Cooperation. – So that the kid could understand that such moments also happen in the life of a fairytale character. Then a fictional character (he may be a boy, girl, insect, animal, bird, etc.) gets into a situation that is similar to the real situation of a child. A character can be cowardly, lazy, quarrel with classmates, sisters and brothers, be offended, cry, suffer from boredom or loneliness.