The development and correction of speech according to the method “Letter” through movement
For me, as a speech therapist, the primary and most important task is to build interaction with the child. Some children open from the first contact. But more often this requires additional time, the selection of rhythm, pace, motivation, structure of relationships. As soon as you manage to “pick up the key”, the learning process starts, the lessons become dynamic, productive, efficient and effective.
Movement is the natural state of man, laid down by nature itself. The movement of the diaphragm is breathing, when observed and perceived is the movement of the eyes, the speech utterance is the movement of the muscles of the articulatory, facial, diaphragmatic, etc.
Movement for a child is a necessary condition for its full development. Children’s mobility, muscle activity, especially coordinated movements, stimulate the growth of nerve cells and neural connections in the brain.
Therefore, of the numerous techniques for correcting and developing oral and written speech, my preference is given to the “Letter”. This unique technique, developed by the candidate of psychological sciences, neuropsychologist Shishkova S. Yu., Is based on the latest developments of neuropsychologists, defectologists, psychologists and has been used since 1995. The methodology is based on the inextricability of learning and motor activity, which creates a natural cognitive interest and fills the child with joy.
Rules of the lesson. An essential condition for the effectiveness of the lesson is its observance. The lesson includes integral integral components:
1. Breathing exercises.
2. Eye movements.
3. Coordination exercises.
4. Exercises with letters and sounds.
5. Summarizing the lesson.
Diagnosis of the child is aimed at the principle of “I go after the child.” Diagnostic game exercises are carried out at the beginning of classes in order to take into account its features, attitude, interests and opportunities. Such diagnostics are required to adjust the sequence of the components of the lesson and build a work program in this case.
For example, the game “Here is a palm, here is a fist …” shows the degree to which the work of the right and left hemispheres of the GM is coordinated.
A brief description of the components of the lesson.
1. Breathing exercises.
A) The game “Focus”. Put a small piece of cotton on the tip of the nose and blow it off with your tongue. This technique helps with the setting of hissing sounds.
B) The game “Breeze”. We serve on a spinner, a leaf, a snowflake, a candle, and so on. We teach you to take a long exhalation through the lips – the “tube”, and inhale – through the nose.
C) Breathing exercises on the floor. In the supine position, it is better for the child to track the movement of the abdomen when inhaling, exhaling, holding the breath (pause).
D) Four-phase breathing or square breathing. After the child has mastered the correct inhalation and exhalation, one can begin to take a more complicated form of breathing: draw a square, mark it with symbols: inhale-pause-exhale-pause, start breathing under the count of 3. As the four-phase breathing is assimilated, the number increases to 8-10.
On the example of breathing exercises, children see the result of their work. In Focus, the fleece soars higher, the exhalation becomes longer, the four-phase breathing is difficult to master, but he could!
What gives such a set of breathing exercises:
· Harmonizes the nervous system,
· Strengthens the speech exhalation, so necessary for speaking, singing, expressive reading of poems,
· Gives strength, energy, self-confidence.
2. Eye movements. They are aimed at:
· Education of strong-willed efforts in the child,
Strengthening the eye muscles
· The formation of the relationship “hand-eye”
· Activation of zones of the cerebral cortex.
This stage is difficult to overestimate.
Examples. We follow the small toy worn on a pencil. First, the adult moves the pencil, and then as the child develops, the child independently guides his hand and monitors the object with his eyes and tongue. Game moment – I propose to find a toy that they will follow with their eyes.
3. Body coordination exercises.
The formation of spatial thinking is the most important condition for the success of children in school. To work right-left, top-bottom, etc. I use a rug with 9 cells, for older children with 12. The universal game “Fly”, described in the “Letter”, in a playful way helps me teach a child to navigate in space, and then on a sheet in a notebook. For speech therapy purposes, I use a mat to fix sounds: F – a fly – buzzing, Z – a mosquito rings, W – a snake, etc.
4. The setting of the vocal apparatus is turned on using articulatory gymnastics according to the method of Arkhipova “Tree”. Children and parents clearly see what exercises lead to the production of a particular sound.
Acquaintance with the letters occurs as the sound is produced, then at the request of the child (letters of his name, mother, father, sister). We write the letter on the face, in reflection, on fictional screens, on large and small diagrams, on a sheet (fan), to enhance the memorization of a symbol, we sculpt from plasticine.
5. Summary is an important part of the session. In the child’s memory, a chain of sequential actions that he performed should be built. There is a movement of thought, recall, comprehension, evaluation, the need to beautifully and correctly build a speech utterance. This skill is not formed immediately, sometimes difficult and difficult, because at the end of the lesson, fatigue accumulates, attention is diverted, it is difficult for the child to concentrate and tell what he was doing. For a dynamic debriefing with a sequential listing of activities I use tips: chips (for each type of work the child chooses the color of the chip he likes), draw up a lesson plan (we indicate the types of work with symbols).
It is very important to teach the child and parents to see the results of their work, mark them clearly, for example, “My book of records”, discuss successes: “That’s how it used to be, but how cool it is now, you’re done.” I tried, made efforts and learned …. What do you think helped you get things done? I’m sure that you can, you can cope with any task, you are a smart boy (girl). ” Parents who keep success diaries or albums with notes on the development of their child have the opportunity to see the dynamics of development, its frequency, and undoubtedly receive a positive charge by reading notes about attempts to create words of their child: “tail” – the mouse waved its tail, “circle” – spring, “bloody” – nettles, the dog “scented”, “to get out of the cold you need to pair”, “navel by the cap” – pompom, “I dropped” – fell.
So, the “Letter” has a developmental and educational orientation, creatively developing the child, parent and teacher, giving children the opportunity to realize motor need. Indeed, in motion, their strength is growing and gaining power.