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Comparative analysis of the structural components of personality (part 1)

The psychological structure of the personality, in general, is very complex and multifaceted. Each person carries within him only the inherent individual characteristics, which to the end to understand and study is not always possible.

As for the personality of a teenager, this is an even more complex “construction” of a person, because a young man lives according to the general, scientifically substantiated canons of developmental psychology, and according to his own, sometimes not logical and incomprehensible laws of individual development.

The personality of a growing person is not formed in a vacuum, not by itself, but in its environment. The latter is crucial for his education. Particularly, the role belongs to small groups in which the student interacts with others. This is a family, a school class, informal communication groups. Difficulties in the development and behavior of adolescents may be due to the characteristics of a particular family.

Adolescent psychology is a separate topic, which includes age-related developmental characteristics, determinants of character formation, behavior and various deviations, as well as personality spheres in early adolescence.

But the problem of studying the personality of a teenager, comprehensive diagnostics help to identify, understand and timely take corrective measures to level negative personal and behavioral deviations. This is not a problem of understanding the necessary qualified diagnostics, but a problem of a professional approach to the use of adequate diagnostic procedures. A variety of discussions are being held on this issue to this day, both among educational psychologists and among clinical and social psychologists. Each approach has its own rationale and specific features.

If we turn to history a little, then the study of personality in history began even with ancient philosophers: Heraclitus, Democritus, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle. In the Renaissance, the doctor Juan Huarte, for the first time in the history of psychology, set the task of studying individual differences between people in order to determine their suitability for various professions.

F. Bacon – an English philosopher, the founder of English empiricism, argued that it was necessary to abandon the study of general issues concerning the nature of the soul, exclude organic functions from its composition and proceed to an empirical description of its processes [3].

In 1883, the English researcher F. Galton spoke as the founder of a complex science – anthropometrics, in the framework of which both anatomical and psychophysiological measurements of a person (visual and hearing acuity, psychomotor reactions) were carried out.

In Russia, the study of personality began actively at the beginning of the 20th century, but the experimental base was laid in the last quarter of the 19th century. Each of the researchers tried to find something important and special that would help to understand a person, his features and capabilities. [one]

As noted by S.L. Rubinstein: “The whole psychology of man … is the psychology of personality.” [four]

So, the widely used “personality card” includes abilities, character traits, temperament, features of all mental processes, social and professional orientation, and even past experience and level of culture.

But in order to explore a person, it is necessary to understand what structural components it consists of.

Famous domestic scientist psychologist A.N. Leontiev in his work “Activity. Consciousness. Personality. ”Wrote:“ Cognitive, emotional-volitional activity of a personality, its needs, interests, ideals and beliefs, self-awareness, etc., are components of the spiritual life of a person. They are in a complex interaction and in their unity represent its “I”, guiding the inner life and its manifestations in activities and relations with others. [2]

In domestic psychology, there are a number of attempts to represent the structure of personality (A.G. Kovalev, V.S. Merlin, K.K. Platonov, V.A. Krutetskiy, A.I. Shcherbakov). The psychological structure of personality includes the following structural components:

1) personality orientation: needs, motives, beliefs, ideals, interests, habits, worldview, attitudes, temperament, character;

2) individual typological features: temperament, character;

3) personality abilities: abilities, knowledge, skills;

4) mental processes: cognitive, emotional and volitional;

5) a system of self-regulation [3]. The most reasonable and detailed personality structure was proposed by K.K. Platonov. On the basis of the criterion for the correlation of social and biological in personality traits, four hierarchically related substructures are identified in its structure: personality orientation; experience; individual characteristics of mental processes; biopsychic properties. [3]

Thus, having examined various approaches to this problem, we see that the personality structure can include the following components: cognitive; emotional; behavioral; value-semantic; motivational and needy.

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